many of examples of psychokinesis (mind-over-matter, also known as PK),
from breaking chains in the Bible to today's "spoonbending" parties. Uri
Geller started the spoonbending phenomenon in the 1970's and I started the
PK Parties (spoonbending parties) in 1981. During PK Parties, people often
feel "energy" coming from their hands, as do practitioners of various martial
art techniques which they call "Chi." Sometimes during PK Parties people
have described spontaneous healing experiences. This paper will review what
a PK Party is and the technique that I teach to perform PK.
history has many of examples of "energy healing" with many different names
for the techniques that people use. Some of these techniques will be reviewed,
including the one that I use. There is correlation between the steps for
performing the many techniques for doing energy healing and the steps to
perform PK. The best application of learning how to perform PK at PK Parties
is for healing oneself and others.
I began researching Remote Viewing (RV) in the mid-1970's (Puthoff and Targ, 1976 1). Even though I did not understand how RV worked, applications were obvious, including being able to "see" problems in other individuals' health. I met with Targ and Puthoff in their laboratory at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International and was impressed by their scientific approach to the research of this human capability. At the end of the meeting, they suggested I run experiments attempting to replicate their experiments, which is what I did. James McDonnell heard of my interest and asked if I would conduct an experiment for him. I chose to conduct an RV experiment using latitude and longitude coordinates, in degrees, minutes, and seconds (about 100 ft resolution) of targets all over the earth. Ingo Swan had suggested to Targ and Puthoff that using coordinates would be an interesting way to define the location of a RV target and they used them for training exercises. In documenting this experiment, conducted in 1980, I wrote a chapter titled "Conceptual Model of Paranormal Phenomena", attempting to give readers a way of thinking about how RV might work. I subsequently published that chapter in Archaeus as a paper (Houck, 1983 2 and 3). Figure 1 summarizes the conceptualization of the model used for how the brain/mind operates in order to perform extraordinary feats. The key point shown in Figure 1 is that the brain does the information processing and collects data from both the body sensors (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue, nose, and skin/nerves) and another set of the same senses from an external source (e.g., sight, sound, taste, smell, and feeling) through an information channel that I call "the mind". Not shown in Figure 1 but another key point I observed in RV experiments was that often the observed target was not as it was at the time of the viewing, but was like when there was a "peak emotional event" occurring. This "time-shift" occurs because the viewer's mind goes to the target location and searches for the time of a peak emotional event. That event is what is reported.
Figure 1 Conceptual Model of Brain/Mind Functioning
The McDonnell Foundation requested that I brief a number of parapsychology laboratories around the US on the results of the RV experiment and my Conceptual Model. One of the postulates that I would make when discussing my model was that in order to avoid the mind searching in time, "you need to deliberately create a peak emotional event and maybe you can get other paranormal phenomena, like psychokinesis (PK)." Charles Honerton challenged me to test that idea. I figured that "wild" parties were acceptable in California, so using the idea of a wild party to create the peak emotional event to get the partygoers' minds focused on the current time and task of bending metal, we might get real PK. That's what happened when I had the first PK Party at my home in January, 1981.
In this paper, I will discuss the PK Parties and energy healing.
PK Parties have become a gathering of people interested in experiencing PK. The first PK Party was an experiment and no one knew if it would work. It did generate the environment wherein 19 of the 21 people in attendance experienced the forks and spoons losing their structure for 5 to 30 seconds with heat seemingly coming from inside the metal. When the silverware felt warm, they would apply slight pressure with their hands and the metal would be twisted into bizarre shapes. This was often accompanied by people screaming and jumping up and down with joy. The instructions for doing PK were provided by Severin Dahlen (metallurgist, who also worked at McDonnell Douglas) and have been used at all PK Parties that I have given. These instructions are:
- Make a mental connection to what you want to affect.
- Command what you want it to do by shouting "Bend! Bend! Bend!" for metal.
- Let go!
I was so impressed by what I observed at the first PK Party, I decided to hold another one the next month and this time included different types of metals as experiments. Severin and I would construct new experiments and implement them at each PK Party. We did a lot of testing and metallurgical analyses that first year. We also added new features, always keeping the environment fun, exciting, and even chaotic at times.
It became very apparent that the first two instructions were easy for people who grew up in the Western culture. However, even though many people talk about the third step, "Letting Go", very few really know how to do it. I observed that often when people were distracted from working on their own fork or spoon and looked at someone who was shouting that theirs was bending, that was when their silverware would begin to get soft and start to bend. That was when they Let Go! The only concentration necessary for doing PK is the first step.
My observations are based on a great deal of data, as well as feedback from individuals filling out questionnaires at the end of PK Parties. The data have now come from 370 PK Parties with over 17,000 people attending. Also many people have replicated the PK Party format in their own PK Parties and generally report the same observations.
Everyone seems to be able to do PK. Children are the best at PK, however, I usually request the children be five and older. Small children usually do not understand what is going on and sometimes cry with all the noise when people are shouting. Children ages 6 through 13 seem to let go easily and are always looking around during the bending. They have not learned that they should not be able to do PK. Senior citizens are the next best group. Generally, they have self confidence and let go fairly easily. This seems to be true for all genders, ethnicities, races of people. All it takes is a brain and mind, and the ability to follow instructions.
Some people do not achieve PK at these parties. Some analyze too much (e.g., lawyers and engineers) while others really do not want to experience PK, perhaps due to a religious belief, negative attitude, having said that "they did not see any sense in bending spoons" or ask "can you bend them back?"
Stainless flatware seems to be the easiest metal to PK. This is because of two metallurgical characteristics of stainless steel. One is that stainless flatware is usually stamped out in large quantities. The process of cold stamping creates a large number of "dislocations" along the grain boundaries in the metal. The PK energy is somehow dumped into the metal and these dislocations act as beacons for that energy. Once the PK energy lands at a dislocation, there is nowhere for it to go and it turns into heat, much as when neutrons and x-rays penetrate solid objects. Heat builds up along the grain boundaries, which are very thin and they melt (stainless steel melts at approximately 2000 degrees Fahrenheit). The result is that the much larger grains are essentially floating and the fork or spoon feels like it has lost its structure and becomes like rubber. Figure 2 shows conceptually how the intention of the individual doing the PK is translated into energy being transferred into metal and focused at dislocations in the metal's grain boundaries. The photo at the bottom-right of Figure 2 was taken by a Scanning Electron Microscope and clearly shows the grain boundaries between the stainless steel grains as well as the little fractures in the boundaries called dislocations, created when the metal was stamped. The metal feels soft for 5 to 30 seconds. When the temperature of the grain boundaries drops below 2000 o, the metal refreezes to its normal hardened state. The other stainless characteristic time when the metal begins to get soft and rubber-like. It is very hard to PK copper because it is that it has a very low heat transfer rate. This results in more time for the individual to find the has a very high heat transfer rate, thus making it hard to find a time when enough of the grain boundaries have melted to apply some pressure before the metal refreezes. We used to have copper at the PK Parties and when people tried to bend it, the copper would just get hotter and hotter until they had to drop it to avoid being burned. Sometimes there is so much heat that builds up inside the metal that some changes to the gaseous state and loud pops are heard when the metal blows itself apart. Cast metals are very hard to PK because they do not have many dislocations in the grain boundaries.
Figure 2 Melting Grain Boundaries Using PK
In several experiments, we noticed that the metal continued to bend. On one occasion, the metal continued to bend for three days. This indicates that the heating of the grain boundaries continued and stress in the metal continued to be relieved. The resulting metal looked much like a piece of stressed metal that had been in an oven around 800 degrees and the stress slowly was relieved, as in a phenomenon known as "creep."
Stainless forks and spoons just lying on the floor get softer and softer from one PK Party to another. This was best demonstrated in an experiment (Dahlen, 1985 4) where two packages of the old type hacksaw blades were purchased. Each package had two blades in it. All blades were hardness tested. One blade was set aside at a friend's home and never again came in contact with the other three hacksaw blades. The other three were hardness tested before each of five PK Parties held over a three month period. They were not tested immediately after each PK Party to allow the PK effect to continue. At the PK Parties, they were left in a bag on the floor amongst all the other metal for bending in the middle of the group. Only Severin Dahlen and I knew what was in the bag and that they were involved in an experiment. The result was that the three hacksaw blades exposed to the environment at the PK Parties became softer after each event, and the hardness changed from the very hard steel down to almost annealed steel hardness.
Many attempts were made to develop a PK sensor to measure when the PK effect was occurring. A Hall Effect chip in a bridge circuit worked the best (Houck, 1993 5). Normally, Hall Effect chips are used in the detection of magnetic fields, however, other experiments have shown no intense magnetic fields are associated with PK. Hall Effect chips do have current flow change dependent on the dislocations and so the chips' dislocations were probably being affected by the PK. Interestingly, the Hall Effect chip sensors would only work for one experiment and the chip had to be replaced for each experiment.
Another experiment demonstrates that PK can be performed remotely. A gyroscope was running in a MIT laboratory and the individual monitoring the gyroscope was instructed to call a group in Southern California (approximately 3000 miles from the gyroscope location) to report any unusual events. The group in California sat in a living room with the intention to stop the gyroscope using PK. Approximately five minutes from the coordinated start time, the call was received that the gyroscope had stopped.
The PK Parties were divided into several levels or stages and are described next. Stages during PK Parties
Stainless steel forks and spoons are used for the first level I call "Kindergarten" bending (Knives sometimes break and cut people). Similarly, we do not use glass objects or lead pencils because they have a tendency to blow up when the PK energy is dumped inside these objects that are not flexible enough to expand readily.
People at the PK Party usually sit in a circle with a large number of spoons and forks dumped in the middle of the circle. The party facilitator explains the PK steps and then directs the group through the steps, much like a cheerleader. During the PK Party, the facilitator does not demonstrate doing PK, but encourages the people attending the PK Party to bend first. Excitement is encouraged and when people get into the fun of it, incredible results occur.
Figure 3 shows a happy Kindergarten bender. About 85% of the people achieve bending one or more stainless flatware. People do use both hands during Kindergarten, but only a small amount of physical force is encouraged. This stage is really about finding the time when the flatware has lost its structure and the flatware is acting as a biofeedback sensor.
It is important for people to start at the Kindergarten level because there does seem to be a "boot-strapping" effect. Even though this activity is not a controlled scientific experiment, most people enjoy it and can take home some trophies. Many learn about the Letting Go step as they analyze and concentrate on the flatware and find it does not get soft or warm. However, when they look around the room and at least temporarily forget about what they are trying to PK, often they find that is when the PK starts to work.
|Figure 3 Kindergarten Bending
People take their bent flatware with them. Some have even put them with plants and trees, subsequently reporting improved plant growth. People usually bend four or five pieces of flatware before moving on to the next level.
The High School level is defined as bending things that could not ordinarily be bent by human physical force. Usually steel rods of various lengths and diameters are available for PKing. Also, silver plated spoons are available for participants to buckle the bowls. The shell structure of a spoon bowl makes it very difficult to buckle. Stainless spoons are just too strong for bowl buckling, but the silver plated spoons are made of pot metal and then plated with the silver. The Step #2 command for bowl buckling is "Buckle" rather than "Bend." Figure 4 shows a successful spoon bowl buckler.
Numerous times, children between 6 and 8 have demonstrated results of bending a 1/2" diameter by 18" long steel rod about 20 o. Remarkable! (One of those children was accepted into UCLA at age 11 and became a psychiatrist at age 19.)
About 32% of the PK Party attendees have achieved High School bending.
|Figure 4 High School Bending
Eldon Byrd and Uri Geller went to Japan, where Eldon was asked to put on a PK Party for Japanese TV and Uri did his regular PK demonstrations. Eldon observed Uri cause a seed to sprout in his hand. Eldon later asked me to try sprouting seeds in a PK Party environment. I went to a health food store and bought 1/2 lb of soy bean seeds. At the next PK Party, I put the seeds in a bowl of water just before the PK Party began. After the High School bending, I had the people take a handful of wet seeds and use the Step #2 command "Sprout." About 50% of the people had the seeds popping the shells and then appearing to have a sprout emerging about 1/4". We have been doing seed sprouting at the end of High School bending ever since then.
One memorable PK Party was held near the University of Minnesota. One professor had brought his own seeds and insisted on passing them out rather than using my soy bean seeds. He almost fainted when one woman showed him her hand with these little seed sprouts growing all over her hand. Graduate School
Graduate school is when each person holds two forks at the bottom of the handle, one in each hand with the intention of having the forks bend spontaneously.. Although people may still be at the Kindergarten, High School, and Seed Sprouting levels, I stop what they are doing and have them take two "Graduate" forks from a box of forks that I have inspected carefully to make sure each fork starts out uniform (i.e., no bends or twists). Then all together we go through the basic PK Instructions again with the Step #2 command being "Bend or Melt." Then we wait until the forks begin to bend spontaneously. Figure 5 shows a man that had both of the forks he was holding bend over spontaneously. At that particular PK Party I was across the room from him and observed him staring at the fork in his right hand and the fork in his left hand bent over. I called his attention to the fork in his left hand and he said "Wow, how did that happen?" At that moment, the fork in his right hand fell over. He was a bit upset because he did not see either one bend spontaneously, but most of the rest of us did.
About 11% of the people attending PK Parties have had some amount of spontaneous fork bending, all of which is considered macro-PK. Sometimes the fork tines have only small movement or twists. Occasionally we see large effects like those shown in Figure 5.
Sometimes water is observed dripping from the tines of a fork being commanded to bend spontaneously. In these cases the air around the fork is very cold and I have surmised that the mind is attempting to pull the energy out of the local air to bend the fork.
|Figure 5 Graduate School Bending
Graduate forks must be replaced after being exposed in three PK Parties or they stop bending spontaneously. The number of dislocations in the grain boundaries is probably dramatically reduced and the residual stress appears to be eliminated after three exposures.
Telekinesis is defined as moving objects with the mind. I have not conducted many experiments moving objects. However, at one of the early PK Parties, a mother and her daughter were sitting and I observed that the young girl had bent one of the rods we had put in the party that were made from some kind of metal that should have been unbendable. I went over to her and congratulated her on her success. The mother said; "Oh, she can do more than that." At that moment the daughter pointed toward the stick figure of a tennis player on a stand with a sharp point supporting it and a counterbalance weight causing the center of gravity to be below the point (on the fireplace mantel). She commanded it to "move" and the stick figure spun around. Figure 6 shows the young girl who demonstrated Telekinesis by making the stick figure on the mantel twirl around on its pivot point.
A group of researchers in the Washington DC area were conducting experiments in PK. One of the members was a woman who had a fork dripping water at one of my PK Parties. They wanted to replicate this phenomenon. They reported that the women was sitting, holding a wine glass in one hand while commanding the fork in her other hand to bend. It didn't bend, but they reported her finger prints were left etched into the wine glass.
|Figure 6 Telekinesis
Figure 7 shows a man attempting to pull a spoon apart at a PK Party. He was successful and this event was caught on video tape (video clip on my website (www.JackHouck.com). The next day at lunch, he sat down across the table from me. I asked him if he thought he could do that again. He indicated that he would try, so I went to the kitchen at this resort and purchased 12 stainless forks. I gave one fork to him, and after a few moments, he pulled it apart. The remaining 11 forks were tensile tested in a metallurgical laboratory and the average force required to pull them apart was 850 lbs.
|Figure 7 Pulling spoon apart
Summary of PK Parties
PK Parties facilitate generating the PK environment and there clearly is interaction between the mind and the material world.
There are typically 20 to 50 people at a PK Party. Fifteen is a minimum to have enough people to create enough distraction for a high success rate. The largest party I have ever given had over 400 people and there were not nearly enough raw materials on which to practice PK.
Approximately 50% of people who do PK at the parties are able to do it later by themselves, without the PK Party environment. Over 100 others have given PK Parties all over the world with similar results reported.
Now I will discuss energy healing and later show relationships between that and psychokinesis.
Table 1 is a list of types of energy healing. There is a great deal of information on the Internet about the different types of energy healing. All of these energy healing types fall into broader categories of Alternative and Complementary healing. If you happen to have this paper electronically and use America On Line (AOL), then each energy healing type in Table 1 is a link that will take you to another list of subcategories (the number if items in each list is shown in parentheses after each type) which in turn provides links to websites about each of these methods. Otherwise search the Internet using these names of the Energy Healing types and find the many websites.